Friday, July 3, 2020

Critique of Durham et al.s (2016) Article Research Methods - 1925 Words

Critique of Durham et al.'s (2016) Article: Research Methods (Article Sample) Content: Critique of Durham et al.'s (2016) ArticleNameInstitutional AffiliationDateCritique of Durham et al.'s (2016) ArticleDurham, M. L., Suhayda, R., Normand, P., Jankiewicz, A., Fogg, L. (2016). Reducing medication administration errors in acute and critical care: Multifaceted pilot program targeting RN awareness and behaviors. Journal of Nursing Administration, 46(2), 75-81. doi: 10.1097/NNA.0000000000000299 Introduction Durham, Suhayda, Normand, Jankiewicz Fogg (2016) identify medication administration errors (MAEs) as a problem that health care providers find difficult to deal with because of its obliviousness in practice. The authors identify a group of factors that could lead to clinicians committing MAEs. They follow the process by designing a program that is tested for effectiveness in increasing awareness among registered nurses about MAEs and influencing their change of behavior. The authors settled on using an observational study, which is appropriate when st udying the change of behavior. The article does not have a clearly stated hypothesis. However, it can be deduced that the purpose of the study was to find whether a program can be designed to influence the behavior of registered nurses in administering medication, resulting in a decrease in MAEs. The expectations of the researchers were confirmed, though the statistics were not significant for the interventions. The authors cited using a small sample and an unanticipated error in administering medication as what caused the findings not to be statistically significant. The authors use the results to recommend that a program that changes the behavior of registered nurses can be used to reduce MAEs.Evaluating the Research MethodsAbout the Literature Review The authors have provided a literature review, though it is not explicitly labeled as such. It follows the trend in the beginning of the paper in which the abstract as well as the introduction are not explicitly labeled as "abstract" and "introduction", respectively. The literature review is appropriate because it identifies the problem. At one point, it identifies why the problem is important to study. For instance, it highlights that medication administration errors (MAEs) cause an increase in hospital stays by between 1.7 and 4.6 days on average. The occurrence and impact of MAEs have also caught the attention of regulators, making it an issue that is relevant for discussion in today's society. The literature review identifies reasons why dealing with MAEs is challenging. One of the reasons that the authors highlight is that MAEs occur in a health care environment in which it is difficult to collect data on MAEs and ensure accountability. Administrators depend on the clinicians who have committed MAEs to confess or when an adverse outcome forces the management to focus on a case. The literature review identifies time pressure and workload as some of the reasons nurses may commit MAEs. The literature review also identifies strategies that can be used to reduce the occurrence of MAEs in health care settings. Pertinent to the study, the literature review identifies the intervention and why the researchers believe the intervention would be effective. The literature review supports the use of interventions such as mindfulness and error interceptions as some of the behaviors that can reduce MAEs when taught to clinicians. Relevance of the Research to Current Health Care Issues The research is current and relevant to today's health care issues because it addresses one of the health care issues that have received significant media and scholarly attention in recent years. The issue of MAEs has elicited public concern similar to other issues, such as hospital readmissions, the impact of patient falling in geriatric care or hospitals, the use of the emergency room by undocumented immigrants, and closure of emergency departments by health care providers to avoid the cost of maintaining them. Foll owing this list, MAEs are a current issue that has gained considerable attention because researchers believe that medical errors are one of the leading causes of death in the U.S., though it is not clearly documented (Makary Daniel, 2016). The MAEs takes a considerable size of the medical errors. The cost of health care in the US has been considered higher than other advanced economies and consumers are beginning to demand value for money by expecting that there will be fewer medical errors and hospital readmissions. The research addresses the problem of MAEs by providing a number of interventions that can be used to reduce MAEs and the identification of risk factors for mitigation of the risks. One of the risk factors identified is that a significant portion of the MAEs is likely to occur on the first day of taking care of a new patient. The other risk factor is that MAEs are likely to occur when the number of medications per session is high (Durham et al., 2016). Research Design Used The researchers use an observational research design to complete their study. It is appropriate for the researchers to use observational research when they are studying behaviors. Durham et al. (2016) sought to study behaviors that health care systems and registered nurses (RNs) can adopt to help reduce the occurrence of MAEs in acute and critical care settings. Observational design is appropriate for behaviors need to be observed for a long duration before one can conclude that a habit leans toward a certain direction. There is an aspect of subjectivity when collecting data using observation. The validity and reliability of the data may depend on the competence of the observer. To reduce such effects, Durham et al. (2016) point out that two observers were trained to examine the behaviors of RNs, forming a group of three observers together with the trainer. They compared their data on each nurse to consider inter-rater reliability. By doing this, the researchers reduced one of the weaknesses of subjective data. In their research design, Durham et al. (2016) did not use a control group. However, they observed the same group several times, including before and after administering the intervention. The researchers also tested the effectiveness of the program in reducing MAEs before using it as an intervention in the study. The researchers also did well using unobtrusive observation technique, though it was difficult to maintain due to the nature of the study (Durham et al., 2016). As expected in an observation study, the researchers can collect data that can explain other aspects of the problem that are not specifically related to the research question, which the researchers did. For instance, the authors realized a difference in effectiveness of the program between the acute care unit and the neuroscience ICU with the acute care unit doing better than the ICU. Sample Size and Sampling The researchers use a sort of multistage cluster sampling in which they selected a large academic medical center. It was followed by selecting two units, the acute care unit and the neuroscience ICU. All nurses who fall under their category (RNs) with 6 to 8 years of experience were included in the study with 26 RNs enrolling in the intervention program. Data was compared with those collected before the intervention. There is a bias in using cluster sampling. However, the bias can be reduced when everyone in the cluster is examined. In this studied, there is a bias because the authors chose to observe nurses with particular qualifications, which are higher than in a normal health care setting. It may mean that the effectiveness of the program could be higher or lower, depending on whether more experienced nurses perceive the intervention as necessary or less important. The sampling method is appropriate for the observational study because it is an in-depth study, which is difficult to conduct over a large sample size. The sample size is app ropriate, though it cannot be used to make generalizations for all health care settings. One of the reasons is that the study uses a small sample size. The other reason is that it can only appear to a health care setting that applies the same level of technology or higher. In the study, the nurses were using scanners for patient identification and automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) to aid administering medication. However, it can provide a head start for the study of programs aimed at reducing MAEs in acute care units and ICUs. The study can be applied by acute care and ICU settings that are almost similar to those studied by the authors. The authors highlight the number of observations at 138 in which 572 doses were administered. Almost half of the observations (231) belonged to the pre-intervention period and 341 belong to the post-intervention period (Durham et al., 2016). The authors tend to indicate that the number of observations increases reliability, though the sample siz e is small. Practicality of the Work The study appears practically applicable to me because it identifies some of the common causes of MAEs, such as multitasking and underestimating the effect of MAE. In addition, the authors' work is practical to me because it does not suggest that the interventions they have used are what health care providers need to implement, rather it suggests health care providers should review their systems and develop interventions that can reduce MAEs. The interventions applied in the study include creating awareness of the MAE problem, adhering to medication administration protocol, mindfulness, using a safety checklist, a...

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Surprising Facts About Topics for Autobiographical Essay Uncovered by Industry Leaders

Surprising Facts About Topics for Autobiographical Essay Uncovered by Industry Leaders Once you have written your text, it's the opportunity to read it to find out what mistakes ought to be fixed and what things can be made better in your work. This book will feature a few of the females who've been pioneers in my personal field (Microbiology). Therefore, be ready for the simple fact your autobiography ought to be written by you by hand in the existence of the HR manager, and not submitted in ready-printed form. This autobiography example is ideal for both college and higher school students. Autobiography is the sort of document that may emotionally win the interest of prospective employer, so allocate enough time and effort to compose this document. The primary aim of the autobiographical essay is to demonstrate your individual qualities and abilities that will impress an admissions board. Regardless of what piece of writing you are assigned at your institution, the comprehensive paper has to be interesting to read. Ruthless Topics for Autobiographical Essay Strategies Exploited Narrative essays serve wide range of purposes. Virtually all writers seek the expert services of copy editors. The introduction is just one of the most essential parts since it is the point where the reader receives the very first impression of you. Regardless of the simple fact that you compose a story about yourself, you still must adhere to some requirements and build a very good structure of the essay. Even a fundamental autobiography outline can help you remain on track, stay organized, and save a lot of time. Make certain that you comply with the set instructions keenly. Distinct varieties of autobiographies serve various purposes. Once you know which to use, you can get online and find more info about the particular requirements for the format. Make the reader want to read the entire essay in 1 breath. Keep in mind this essay isn't the exact same thing for a CV or resume. Generally, an autobiographical sketch is simply an easy essay. Picking the topic for your essay could be the hardest part. The outline makes it possible to create a structure, produce ideas and allow you not to forget. Last, you've got to produce an outline of your upcoming essay. Be conscious of the size it must be and begin writing the narrative essay outline. In the same way as any other outline an autobiographical research paper outline is going to be 1. The Good, the Bad and Topics for Autobiographical Essay An autobiography isn't a straight story of your entire life. Thirdly, it can help you decide what work you need. This kind of autobiography describes a particular portion of your life. Writing an autobiography is an ambitious and intriguing work. If you wish to tell your readers about a definite period of your life, pick a genre of memoir. Take advantage of these themes as frequently as you are able to in order to form a consistent depiction of your story. Thus, when you plan your autobiography, be sure you concentrate on events that had significant effect on your life and totally ignore the tidbits. You may write about your accomplishments but in addition, you need to compose the flaws that have made you exactly what you are. There's a writing craft or a technique that is able to make your story come to life. If you compose the life story of some other person, that's referred to as a biography. So, it's a significant foundation for assorted epic stories! If you don't understand how to compose an autobiography in the suitable way it's time to learn from the very best writing examples. Topics for Autobiographical Essay - Overview A great idea is to write about either a terrific accomplishment or a difficult challenge you've faced. Even a single conversation may make a difference. There is but one topic you. Lies You've Been Told About Topics for Autobiographical Essay Our lives are simply a little part of the complete picture. If you're a student, your life story may not be that long. An autobiography is a good means to tell men and women in exactly the same situation that there's a way out. An excellent autobiography creates a particular image of the individual and shows how events in their li fe have formed the person as a person. A country is similar to man's shelter. Let other people read your work An outside or second opinion will be required to be certain your work would attract all. When written, there will be as many life stories as there are they. From the sample you are able to learn how to describe your own character and abilities for those who still don't know anything about you.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Homemade Non-Toxic White Face Paint Recipe

Many commercial face paints contain chemicals you dont want, such as heavy metals or allergens. Here is a recipe for a homemade white face paint you can make that uses natural, non-toxic ingredients. White Face Paint Materials You only need a few common household materials to make your own white face paint. 2 tablespoons solid white shortening5 teaspoons cornstarch1 teaspoon white flour3-5 drops glycerin Make the Face Paint Mix the cornstarch and flour together.Use a fork to blend in the shortening.Slowly mix in the glycerin until you have a creamy mixture. If the mixture is too runny, add more flour or cornstarch.You can use this white face paint as it is or you can mix in a few drops of fruit juice or food coloring to attain any color you need. Be aware, adding coloring  may result in a product which could stain your skin.Apply the face paint with a paintbrush or sponge, taking care to avoid getting it in the eyes.To remove this face paint, first use a tissue to remove as much face paint as possible. Then wash the face with soap and warm water.

Friday, May 15, 2020

Thales of Miletus - 712 Words

Thales of Miletus was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Miletus in Asia Minor, and one of the Seven Sages of Greece. Many, most notably Aristotle, regard him as the first philosopher in the Greek tradition. According to Bertrand Russell, Western philosophy begins with Thales. Thales attempted to explain natural phenomena without reference to mythology and was tremendously influential in this respect. Almost all of the other Pre-Socratic philosophers follow him in attempting to provide an explanation of ultimate substance, change, and the existence of the world without reference to mythology. Those philosophers were also influential and eventually Thales rejection of mythological explanations became an essential idea for the†¦show more content†¦Another remarkable achievement of his was deriving the theorem, popularly known as Thales theorem on basis of deductive reasoning. Thales is credited with the following five theorems of geometry: 1. A circle is bisected by its dia meter. 2. Angles at the base of any isosceles triangle are equal. 3. If two straight lines intersect, the opposite angles formed are equal. 4. If one triangle has two angles and one side equal to another triangle, the two triangles are equal in all respects. (See Congruence) 5. Any angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle. This is known as Thales Theorem. Thales’ method to find the height of the pyramid To calculate the height of the pyramids of Giza, Thales used the following proposition: two similar triangles with identical angles have their three sides in proportion. The great pyramid of Giza is made of more than 2.3 million limestone blocks Each of the blocks originally was covered with an outer casing of lustrous white limestone. This layer was later removed and used to build the city of Cairo. After this, the Pyramids height was reduced by about 30 feet (9.1 meters). Thus the current height is 138 m. Another real life application Similarity is a concept that is the basis of scale drawing in architecture and engineering, used in building scale models from toy model airplanes to scale modelsShow MoreRelatedThales was the First Recorded Philosopher from Miletus576 Words   |  2 Pagesdiscoveries. Thales is regarded as the first recorded philosopher from Miletus. He believed reality was defined by water. Water rests on earth, reflects objects, and conforms to the shape of other objects. During what we call the ancient period, 600-300 BCE, communities lived by water supplies. Water is necessary to have the ability to obtain other means of survival. As opposed to referring to religion, Thales rejected the concept of Gods on Mount Olympus. The reality beyond mythology for Thales reliedRead More Scientific Method Essay888 Words   |  4 PagesScientific Method Thales of Miletus (624-546 B.C.) was the first to suggest a single material substratum for the universe--namely water or moisture. His cosmology proposes that all objects in the universe are composed of water. His choice of water as the component building block of all matter may have been due to the apparent motion of bodies of water and the conversion of water to vapor and back. Anaximander of Miletus (610-545 B.C.) was the foremost student of Thales. He denied Thales claim that waterRead MoreEssay on Philosophy vs. Science1181 Words   |  5 Pagesalteration in the major world-view and brought it more or less to what it is today (Buckler, 605-608). As for science, it too cannot have an official beginning, but the Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus created it as â€Å"natural philosophy,† and the thinkers of the time considered it a part of philosophy (O’Grady, â€Å"Thales of Miletus†). Scientific advances in theories and objects like the astrolabe gradually came about, though it continued to be either a philosophical or a theological branch for many centuriesRead MoreEssay on Philosophy1146 Words   |  5 Pagescuriosity. The things that caused these questions to come about were the people started to realize that everything isn’t exactly what it appears to be. Philosophy started in the town of Miletus, many early philosophers came from here. The philosophers started their work around 585 B.C. Thales, one of the early Miletus philosophers, left no writings behind, all we know about him is memorable incidents recorded by later writers. He lived between 624 and 546 B.C. His unique contributions to thoughtRead MoreElectricity And Its Effects On Our Lives1072 Words   |  5 Pagesdid this was named Thales of Miletus (Thales of Miletus - Discovers Static Electricity, 1). He was the man that discovered the principle of static electricity (Thales of Miletus - Discovers Static Electricity, 1). As you may expect because during this time no one was really interested in things of that nature and they also did not have the appropriate tools, no further research, investigations, nor experiments took place to learn about static electricity(Thales of Miletus - Discovers StaticRead MoreQuestions On The Origins Of Philosophy1760 Words   |  8 PagesT he first recorded philosopher came about early on in the sixth century B.C.E. His name was Thales of Miletus or what is now Turkey. The first three philosophers, Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes, are known as the Milesians because they all came from the Greek colony of Miletus on the Persian coast and because they constitute the first school of philosophy. (Pg. 24) However, little is known about Thales due to the fact, there weren’t any pieces of literature connecting to him. However, he did makeRead MorePythogoras of Samos Essay examples1350 Words   |  6 Pagesdescribed as the teacher of Pythagoras. The other two philosophers were Thales and his pupil Anaximander, who both lived on Miletus. Pythagoras visited Thales when he was between 18 and 20 years old. By this time Thales was an old man, and probably didn’t teach him a great deal. Yet, he advised Pythagoras to travel to Egypt, and learn more in the field of mathematics and astronomy. Thaless pupil, Anaximand er, lectured in Miletus, and Pythagoras attended. Anaximander was interested in geometry and cosmologyRead MoreThe Origins Of The Origin Of Philosophy1752 Words   |  8 PagesThe first recorded philosopher came about early on in the sixth century B.C.E. His name was Thales of Miletus or what is now Turkey. The first three philosophers, Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes, are known as the Milesians because they all came from the Greek colony of Miletus on the Persian coast and because they constitute the first school of philosophy. (Pg. 24) However, little is known about Thales due to the fact, there weren’t any pieces of literature connecting to him. However, he did makeRead MoreThe History of Physics Essay1534 Words   |  7 Pagesancient Greek port of Miletus as the beginning of the discovery of nature that we commonly think of as the original physics. The town of Miletus is credited as the home of a Greek philosopher named Thales and what is know of Thales is taken from the writings of Aristotle (Spangenburg 8). Thales is considered to be the first example of a person leaving supernatural explanations in an effort to better understand the natural world (Lindberg 29). If Thales of Miletus recorded any of hisRead MoreHistory And Philosophy Of Ancient Philosophy1480 Words   |  6 PagesMost of the early philosophers were looking for a materialistic arche. Thales of Miletus (624-546 BC) is considered to be the first philosopher and he considered water to be the fundamental principle of everything. He thought that all things were composed of water, because it could take all three forms (liquid, solid and gas). He also observed that all living things needed water to stay alive and grow. Aristotle wrote about Thales’ views: â€Å"nourishment of all things is moist, and that even the hot itself

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Parents of Children With Autism vs School Personnel Essay

Based on the civil rights principal of equal educational opportunity, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) guarantee an appropriate education to all students with disabilities. The 1997 IDEA amendments mandate that parents of children with disabilities have a right to be involved with the school district in education decisionmaking processes, meetings, and records of their children. Yet some parents of children in special education feel that schools do not welcome their participation. Parents of children with autism constitute one group of such parents who continually struggle with concerns about the poor quality of education that their children receive. Their perseverance to obtain not even an ideal--but†¦show more content†¦Working with children with autism and their families is an important issue. According to the U.S. Department of Education, identification of children with autism increased 79% from 1993-1997. This increase is not proportional to other disabilities, since the increase in identification of all disabilities from the same period was only 9.5% (National Center for Education Statistics, 1998). Over 500,000 people in the U.S. have some form of autism or pervasive developmental disorder, making it one of the most common developmental disabilities (Autism Society of America, 1999). Yet many professionals in healthcare and education do not have the knowledge or preparation to work with this growing population (Autism Society of America, 1999; Hart, 1993; Jordan Powell, 1995; Muskat Redefer, 1994). The prevalent discord existing between parents of children with autism and educators is an increasing concern. To ensure the success of these students, both parents and professionals must make progress in understanding the perspectives and concerns of each other in order to build positive parent/school relationships and improve educational programming for students with autism. The immediacy and complexity of the school/parent relationship within the context of autism demands a more intimate, in-depth method of inquiry. Designed as insider research, the researcher had been the tutor for the selectedShow MoreRelatedVaccinated Pros And Cons Essay1329 Words   |  6 Pages Getting a Child Vaccinated When it comes to getting, your kids vaccinated many parents must get it due to the school’s policies. Many schools will not let the student back to school until vaccinated or will kick out a student if they do not get the vaccine. On the other hand, some parents do not believe in getting their kids vaccinated so they do what it takes to not get their kids shots. There’s two sides to this issue that people have opinions on. There is many pros and cons When it comesRead MoreThe English Language Learner Is Defined By The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act1445 Words   |  6 PagesDisabilities Education Act (IDEA), a child with a disability has â€Å"mental retardation, hearing impairments (including deafness), speech or language impairments, visual impairments (including blindness), serious emotional disturbance, orthopedic impairments, autism, traumatic brain injury, other health impairments, or specific learning disabilities; and who, by reason thereof, needs special education and related services† (IDEA, 2004). While both definitions imply that a student’s access to education is impairedRead MoreEthics And Childhood Vaccination Policy Essay1386 Words   |  6 PagesHer main concern is that vaccines have been linked to autism and other health problems. There are multiple articles circulating the internet alerting parents of possible side effects of vaccinations; some even claiming to have scientific proof to support their claims. These articles have spurred a controversy about vaccinations and have discouraged parents from them. Reluctance to vaccinate has increased over the past years and has caused parents to neglect the fact that they need to vaccinate theirRead MoreInclusion Practices in Education Essay example4520 Words   |  19 PagesSpecial Education Inclusion What is OnWEAC? Welcome to OnWEAC, the Web site of the Wisconsin Education Association Council. WEAC represents 98,000 K-12 public school teachers and education support professionals, faculty and support staff in the Wisconsin Technical College System, education and information professionals employed by the state, retired members, and university students studying to become educators. 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Soon p eople with disabilities were acknowledged as another group whose rights had often been dishonored because of discrimination. Pennsylvania Assoc for Retarded Children v. Commonwealth (1972) This case resolved that schools cannot refuse to educate studentsRead MoreEssay special education11975 Words   |  48 Pagescommunity.   His level of handicap has been only very mild in the early years as he has been well-supported to be able to play with other children, interact normally with family members and participate fully in family and community activities.   As he gets older, his handicap will increase where certain sports and physical activities are considered normal activities for children of the same age.   He has little handicap in his preschool classroom, though he needs some assistance to move about the classroomRead MoreDeveloping Effective Research Proposals49428 Words   |  198 Pagesassistance. 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Apple And The Computer Industry - 1644 Words

Introduction The company started off as â€Å"Apple Computer,† best known for its Macintosh personal computers (PCs) in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Despite a strong brand, rapid growth, and high profits in the late 1980s, Apple almost went bankrupt in 1996 (Kim Yoffie, 2010, p.1). This can be explained that Apple has become larger and more significant than other competitors put together in 1980. Because Apple failed to innovate in 1996, the company almost went bankruptcy but eventually Steve Jobs took Apple from bad situation to the company that can make billions of dollars through promoted itself as a hip alternative to other computer brands. Apple highlighted its computers as the world’s â€Å"greenest lineup of notebooks† that were energy efficient and used recyclable materials. The goal was to differentiate the Macintosh amid intense competition in the PC industry (Kim Yoffie, p.4). Nowadays, Apple has positioned itself to be an innovator in the personal computer industry and Apple has developed by offering modern products compared to its competitors. According to Apple’s mission statement last year, â€Å"Apple designs Macs, the best personal computers in the world, along with OS X, iLife, iWork and professional software. Apple leads the digital music revolution with its iPods and iTunes online store. Apple has reinvented the mobile phone with its revolutionary iPhone and App store, and is defining the future of mobile media and computing devices with iPad.† (Business Management,Show MoreRelatedIndustry Analysis: Apple Computers Essay1956 Words   |  8 PagesIndustry Anà ¡lisis: Apple Computer 1. Analyzing the computer industry from 1995 to 2005 seemed to be like analyzing a game of chest between the major competitors. 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Over time, different companies grow and develop competitive relationships that encourage refining of their companies in order to stay relevant in a competitive market. Apple is a prime example of a company that is in a competitive market has had many innovations since its creation to help it stand out from other companies in the computer technology industry. Since the 1970’s Apple computers has made

Emilie du Chatelet Essay Example For Students

Emilie du Chatelet Essay Emilie du ChateletEmilie du Chatelet grew up in a society where there were not manyeducation opportunities for women. She was born in Paris on December 17, 1706and grew up in a household where marriage was the only way one could improvetheir place in society. During her early childhood, Emilie began to show suchpromise in the area of academics that soon she was able to convince her fatherthat she was a genius who needed attention. Provided with good education, shestudied and soon mastered Latin, Italian and English. She also studied Tasso,Virgil, Milton and other great scholars of the time. In spite of her talents in the area of languages, her true love wasmathematics. Her study in this area was encouraged be a family friend, M. deMezieres, who recognized her talent. Emilies work in mathematics was rarelyoriginal or as captivating as that of other female mathematicians but it wassubstantive. At the age of nineteen she married Marquis du Chatelet. During thefirst two years of their marriage, Emilie gave birth to a boy and a girl, andlater at the age of 27 the birth of another son followed. Neither the childrenor her husband deterred her from fully grasping and indulging in the social lifeof the court. Some of Emilies most significant work came from the period she spentwith Voltaire, one of the most intriguing and brilliant scholars of this time,at Cirey-sur-Blaise. For the two scholars this was a safe and quiet placedistant from the turbulence of Paris and court life. She started studying theworks of Leibniz but she then started to analyze the discoveries of Newton. Shewas extremely success in translating his whole book on the principals ofmathematics into French. She also added to this book an AlgebraicalCommentary which very few general readers understood. To realize the significance of her work for future French scholars it isimportant to understand the social context within which she lived and worked. One of Emilies most significant tutors was Pierre Louis de Maupertuis, a renownmathematician and astronomer of the time. The struggle for success did not comeeasy even for Emilie. As a student her curiosity and unrelentedness caused herto place impossible demands on her tutors. Such nature caused her to engage indispute with her tutor at the time, Samuel Koenig. Their dispute was about thesubject of the infinitely small which ended their friendship. In 1740 when Emilies book Institutions de physique was published,Koenig started a rumor that the work was merely a rehash of his lessons with her. Of course this mad Emilie very angry and for help she turned to the Academy ofSciences and Maupertuis, with whom she had discussed there ideas long before sheengaged Koenig as her tutor. The intelligent scientists of the time were awareof her capabilities of performing the work. However she did not feel that shehad received the support she deserved. This was the first time that she feltthat being a woman really worked against her. The years Emilie spent with Voltaire at Cirey were some of the mostproductive years of her life. Their scholarly work was very intense. Whenthere were no guests both of them stayed at their desks almost all day long. In the spring of 1748, Emilie met and fell in love with the Marquis deSaint-Lambert, a courtier and poet. This affair did not destroy her friendshipwith Voltaire. Even when she found out that she was carrying Saint-Lambertschild, Voltaire was there to support her. Along with Voltaire and Saint-Lambert,she was able to convince her husband that it was his child she was carrying. .u79c0e16017f2c95e9d7568519fc33102 , .u79c0e16017f2c95e9d7568519fc33102 .postImageUrl , .u79c0e16017f2c95e9d7568519fc33102 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u79c0e16017f2c95e9d7568519fc33102 , .u79c0e16017f2c95e9d7568519fc33102:hover , .u79c0e16017f2c95e9d7568519fc33102:visited , .u79c0e16017f2c95e9d7568519fc33102:active { border:0!important; } .u79c0e16017f2c95e9d7568519fc33102 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u79c0e16017f2c95e9d7568519fc33102 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u79c0e16017f2c95e9d7568519fc33102:active , .u79c0e16017f2c95e9d7568519fc33102:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u79c0e16017f2c95e9d7568519fc33102 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u79c0e16017f2c95e9d7568519fc33102 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u79c0e16017f2c95e9d7568519fc33102 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u79c0e16017f2c95e9d7568519fc33102 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u79c0e16017f2c95e9d7568519fc33102:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u79c0e16017f2c95e9d7568519fc33102 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u79c0e16017f2c95e9d7568519fc33102 .u79c0e16017f2c95e9d7568519fc33102-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u79c0e16017f2c95e9d7568519fc33102:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: How do the two houses, Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange EssayDuring the course of her pregnancy in 1749 she finished her work withClairaut, an old friend with whom she had been studying, but her book on Newtonwas not completed yet. She was determined to finish it and with that goal shetook on a very regimented lifestyle of only work. In early September of 1749, she gave birth to a baby girl. For severaldays, Emilie seemed happy and healthy. On September 10, 1749 she suddenly died. Emilies death was soon followed by the death of the baby girl. Emilie died at the age of 43. Among her greatest achievements were herInstitutions du physique and the translation of Newtons Principia, which waspublished after her death. Emilie du Chatelet was one of many women whosecontributions to the field of mathematics are

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

The Issue Of The Transgender Essay Example For Students

The Issue Of The Transgender Essay Against Transgenders Transgender is when an individual tries to switch genders. The term â€Å"transgender† is becoming more and more well known throughout the United States. Research has proven that â€Å"†¦65% of Americans said they have a close friend or family member who is homosexual, while 9% said that they have one who is transgender† (Steinmetz 40). Many trans-individuals decide later on in their lives that they want to switch genders, and other people argue that they were born the wrong gender, making it a very controversial topic. â€Å"Living within a trans-identity can be a complicated situation for many different reasons† (Cronn-Mills 60). There are many obstacles that trans-people face throughout their lives. Depending on what state trans-people live in, they are faced with whether or not they are accepted by marriage, religion, surgery, adoption rights, identity documents such as birth certificates, driver’s licenses, and passports. There are many barriers that trans-people face daily such as discrimination, whether it is in the workplace, school, or just in public. Trans-people are denied when they try to serve in the military. There is a lot of debate whether or not trans-people are allowed to participle on sports teams, and which restroom/locker rooms to use. Trans-people have unequal access to health care, and the media shows a poor representation of them. People claim that being â€Å"transgender† is a â€Å"mental disorder† (GID). Forty-one percent of trans-people have reported that they have attempted suicide throughout their lives, compared to less than two percent of the general population (Cronn-Mills 52). How other people treat them, can greatly influence trans-individuals throughout their lives and how they view th. .ed States military has a very bias opinion about trans-individual’s right to serve the country. Trans-individuals have struggles and that have to face everyday. Trans-people are faced with many more obstacles rather than homosexual people. Trans-individuals are reminded everyday of the decision that the made and are often judged/discriminated. Trans-people have others treat them like they are diagnosed with a gender identity disorder. The media discredits and disrespects trans-individuals by believing that one cannot change into a different sex that was assigned at birth. The United States military will not allow trans-individuals to serve. Trans-people have unequal access to health care and rights of public restrooms to add on top of public discrimination daily. How other people treat trans-individuals can influence their lives and how they view the world.

Saturday, April 18, 2020

Tips For Writing An Interrogative Essay

Tips For Writing An Interrogative EssayWhen writing an interrogative essay, there are a number of steps you need to take in order to ensure that the essay flows naturally and a successful conclusion is drawn. By following these steps you will ensure that the essay comes out properly and flows better than it did at the start.The first step is to ensure that the introduction comes first. In the opening sentence you should ask a question and then follow it up with a statement that explains the question. If the question you ask in the introduction can be answered in the first sentence then it is a good idea to do so.You should then proceed to write a question and answer the same question in the second sentence. This will create a strong outline and help you to make your statements flow better. The first sentence also sets the tone for the rest of the essay and shows that you are being straightforward.Next you need to make a short sentence that explains the question in the first sentence. Again this is key to making your essay flow well. A question should then follow and then conclude. Make sure you explain the purpose of the question and what you intend to do with the answer.Then you need to outline the rest of the paragraph using the sentences you have just written. The way to put this in is to have the main question and the conclusion.You then need to be sure to stay on topic as well as the thesis statement that you have already written. If you find yourself shifting from one topic to another, you should address the issue quickly and move back to the topic you were originally intending to use the next paragraph.Finally you need to write the conclusion in the last sentence. This should give you a chance to summarize your whole paragraph and hopefully bring some clarity to the matter. If you are unable to move onto a new topic because you feel that the conclusions are not clear enough, then you should consider turning the article into a full-length paper.The goal o f this interrogative essay sample is to help you structure the essay properly and make sure that you keep your sentences neat and focus on your thesis statement. As long as you stick to the above steps, you should find that you will be able to have a success rate with your essays.

Tuesday, April 14, 2020

Capital Punishment`s Cost Essays - Penology, Capital Punishment

Capital Punishment`s Cost How do you feel about the saying, "an eye for an eye?" Do you feel that it is a good saying to run a nation by? Or do you agree with Gandhi who added to that statement, "--and everyone is blind?" There have been many controversies in the history of the United States, ranging from abortion to gun control; however, capital punishment has been one of the most hotly contested issues in recent decades. Capital Punishment is the execution of a criminal pursuant to a sentence of death imposed by a competent court. It is not intended to inflict any physical pain or any torture; it is only another form of punishment. This form of punishment is irrevocable because it removes those punished from society permanently, instead of temporarily imprisoning them, this is the best and most effective way to deal with criminals. The usual alternative to the death penalty is life-long imprisonment. Capital punishment is a method of retributive punishment as old as civilization itself. The death penalty has been imposed throughout history for many crimes, ranging from blasphemy and treason to petty theft and murder. Many ancient societies accepted the idea that certain crimes deserved capital punishment. Ancient Roman and Mosaic Law endorsed the notion of retaliation; they believed in the rule of "an eye for an eye." Similarly, the ancient Egyptians, Assyrians, and Greeks all executed citizens for a variety of crimes. The most famous people who were executed were Socrates (Saunders 462) and Jesus. Only in England, during the reigns of King Canute (1016-1035; Hoyt 151) and William the Conqueror (1066-1087; Miller 259) was the death penalty not used, although the results of interrogation and torture were often fatal. Later, Britain reinstated the death penalty and brought it to its American colonies. Although the death penalty was widely accepted throughout the early United States, not everyone approved of it. In the late-eighteenth century, opposition to the death penalty gathered enough strength to lead to important restrictions on the use of the death penalty in several northern states, while in the United States, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Rhode Island abandoned the practice altogether. In 1794, Pennsylvania adopted a law to distinguish the degrees of murder and only use the death penalty for premeditated first-degree murder. Another reform took place in 1846 in Louisiana. This state abolished the mandatory death penalty and authorized the option of sentencing a capital offender to life imprisonment rather than to death. After the 1830s, public executions ceased to be demonstrated but did not completely stop until after 1936. Throughout history, governments have been extremely inventive in devising ways to execute people. Executions inflicted in the past are now regarded today as ghastly, barbaric, and unthinkable and are forbidden by law almost everywhere. Common historical methods of execution included: stoning, crucifixion, burning, breaking on the wheel, drawing and quartering, beheading and decapitation, shooting, and hanging. These types of punishments today are banned by the eighth amendment to the constitution (The Constitution, Amendment 8). In the United States, the death penalty is currently implemented in one of five ways: firing squad, hanging, gas chamber, electrocution, and lethal injection. These methods of execution compared to those of the past are not meant for torture, but meant for punishment for the crime. For the past decades, capital punishment has been one of the most hotly contested political issues in America. This debate is a complicated one. Capital punishment is a legal, practical, philosophical, social, political, and moral question. The notion of deterrence has been at the very center of the practical debate over the question of capital punishment. Most of us assume that we execute murderers primarily because we believe it will discourage others from becoming murderers. Retentionists have long asserted the deterrent power of capital punishment as an obvious fact. The fear of death deters people from committing crimes. Still, abolitionists believe that deterrence is little more than an assumption and a naive assumption at that. Abolitionists claim that capital punishment does not deter murderers from killing or killing again. They base most of their argument against deterrence on statistics. States that use capital punishment extensively show a higher murder rate than those that have abolished the death penalty. Also, states that have abolished the death penalty and then reinstated it show no significant change in murder rate. They say adjacent states with the death penalty and those without show no long-term differences in the number of murders that occur in that state. And finally, there has been no record of change in the rate of homicides

Thursday, March 12, 2020

Free Essays on Kids Need Gym Class

The benefits of physical activity on a child’s health are well documented. According to several studies, children engaged in physical education show superior motor fitness, academic performance, and attitude toward school when compared to those who do not participate in daily physical education. Children who are active and physically fit have fewer cardiovascular risk factors than less active children, they encounter lower rates of coronary heart disease, lower blood pressure, and lower body fat. Active adolescents also tend to feel less lonely, shy, and hopeless than do their physically inactive peers (Acalogic). In addition, one study which used physical activity as treatment for hyperactive behavior showed that an increase in exercise was an efficient means for reducing rates of aggression and hyperactivity: â€Å"It is well documented in both Exercise and Physiology literature that chemical changes occur in the brain after it is exposed to exercise†¦a regular aerobic intervention at 75% of maximum respiration would indeed be an increase over the child’s daily activity schedule. This change in physiological activity has the potential to change daily behavior. If children, who are exhibiting the early symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity can be exposed to a high incidence of frequent aerobics on a regular basis, then the affects of muscle exhaustion and increased body chemistry changes may combine to curb unwanted disruptive behavior† (Acalogic). In spite of all the positive results exercise provides, many schools, due to budget problems, are cutting back on physical educationmuch to the detriment of our children. More children are overweight or obese than ever before. The term â€Å"overweight† refers to a child that weighs more than is recommended for a given height; and when this excess weight is in the form of fat, health problems may develop. â€Å"Obesity† is an excess of body fat. Children are consid... Free Essays on Kids Need Gym Class Free Essays on Kids Need Gym Class The benefits of physical activity on a child’s health are well documented. According to several studies, children engaged in physical education show superior motor fitness, academic performance, and attitude toward school when compared to those who do not participate in daily physical education. Children who are active and physically fit have fewer cardiovascular risk factors than less active children, they encounter lower rates of coronary heart disease, lower blood pressure, and lower body fat. Active adolescents also tend to feel less lonely, shy, and hopeless than do their physically inactive peers (Acalogic). In addition, one study which used physical activity as treatment for hyperactive behavior showed that an increase in exercise was an efficient means for reducing rates of aggression and hyperactivity: â€Å"It is well documented in both Exercise and Physiology literature that chemical changes occur in the brain after it is exposed to exercise†¦a regular aerobic intervention at 75% of maximum respiration would indeed be an increase over the child’s daily activity schedule. This change in physiological activity has the potential to change daily behavior. If children, who are exhibiting the early symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity can be exposed to a high incidence of frequent aerobics on a regular basis, then the affects of muscle exhaustion and increased body chemistry changes may combine to curb unwanted disruptive behavior† (Acalogic). In spite of all the positive results exercise provides, many schools, due to budget problems, are cutting back on physical educationmuch to the detriment of our children. More children are overweight or obese than ever before. The term â€Å"overweight† refers to a child that weighs more than is recommended for a given height; and when this excess weight is in the form of fat, health problems may develop. â€Å"Obesity† is an excess of body fat. Children are consid...

Monday, February 24, 2020

Police Officers' Problems in the 21st Century Research Paper

Police Officers' Problems in the 21st Century - Research Paper Example Issues like international terrorism have become burning issues for the Police. The old model of policing has changed and the way the role of Police was perceived has changed too. Access to information, the changes in the way Police responded to the new situation, the pre-emptive strikes, immigration etc are some of the key issues which have created significant challenges for the police and other authorities. 9/11 was one of the events which changed many things and virtually shifted the existing paradigm for the security and policing methods. It not only exposed the vulnerabilities of the existing security and policing procedures but also provided an opportunity to look into the better ways to manage the risk and threat posed to the society by the negative elements. It is therefore critical to understand that the challenges and opportunities available to Police are unique in nature and need to be viewed from the perspective of the changes which have taken place since 9/11. The policing model and the resulting changes therefore need to be discussed in order to fully understand the practical origins of the challenges faced by the police during 21st century. This paper will therefore make an attempt to discuss the challenges faced by Police during 21st century while discussing the difference between the challenges faced by the Police in past.The original duty or the mission of Police, as outlined by Sir Robert Peel, is to prevent crime and disorder. however, the overall sensitivity and the responsibilities of Policies have radically changed in the wake of current situation. The founder of modern model for Policing, Sir Robert Peel outlined the basic duty of police to ensure the safety of the general public and the preservation of peace within an in creasingly pluralist society The police’s role is now not just limited to the prevention of crime at the community level however, it now also entails a broader scope for activities which are considered as essential for controlling and preventing terrorist activities. The traditional community policing model was based on gaining and developing the trust within the public to achieve the overall aim of public safety. This model therefore required a closer link with the community to continuously look for information and intelligence which cannot help to prevent the crime but also allow the police to track down those who committed the crimes. (Bayley and Shearing) The shift towards intelligence led policing from the traditional investigative and reactive policing approach and than to the more pro-active military like policing model has been due to the changing nature of crime. As mentioned above that with the war on terrorism and the change in the way society face internal and ext ernal threats, the role of policing and the approaches of policing have changed. The above changes in the way society now perceives the role of Police and other law enforcement agencies therefore suggest that Police may face significant challenges during 21st Century. Counter-terrorism One of the most important challenges to be faced by the Police during 21st century is the counter- terrorism and anti-terrorism. The events of 9/11 have changed the way security was generally perceived by the societies. The increasing threat to the life and property of innocent citizens and the State itself therefore necessitated that the traditional role of Police should change. Earlier the significant challenge faced by the Police was to keep the criminals in check while ensuring that the general environment of peace and harmony exists in society. However, the anti-terrorism has forced police to face the significant challenge of meeting the new requirements. (Cooley) Terrorism has emerged as a pheno menon

Saturday, February 8, 2020

The Lehman Brothers Collapse. Who, Why, How and Its Long-term Effects Term Paper

The Lehman Brothers Collapse. Who, Why, How and Its Long- Effects on Securities Markets - Term Paper Example There are a few terms which need to be defined before proceeding further. Security markets are the markets where securities of different types are bought and sold with reference to demand and supply. Mortgage markets involve dealings of loans on housing, business and industrial real estates. The markets in which corporations raise new capital by issuing common stock are referred to as primary markets. Secondary markets on the other hand are the ones where formerly issued securities are bought and sold among the investors, with no direct involvement of the corporations. Leverage is usually referred to borrowing. Stockholders are those who buy shares of a company, thereby gaining the rights of votes, earning dividends and profits. In a dramatic manner, Lehman Brothers underwent the largest bankruptcy in the history of United States, with its stocks plummeting drastically, customers opting their way out and assets being heavily undervalued by the official credit rating groups of that time. Lehman Brothers was mutually established by the three brothers, Henry Lehman, Emanuel Lehman and Mayer Lehman. Since its foundation, it was considered to be a very reputable institution in which people used to place immense amount of trust. With the passage of time, the popularity of the firm increased tremendously and it became one of the most reliable financial service companies in the United States, with the launch of its various subsidiaries such as Aurora Loan Services, Crossroad Groups, etc. Since 1993, the company was being led by Richard S. Fuld, Jr, who can be construed as a typical traditional leader with a top down command and control approach. He used to be very daunting in his demeanour and often commanded respect and devotion from his employees on the basis of power. He had a large management team along with him comprising of senior managers and board of directors who always aided him in forming corporate level policies, core business strategies and decision making. Up till 2007, the firm did reasonably well as far as the monetary records are concerned. The company even reported a staggering $4.2 billion profit in the year 2007. However, the consequences of following a superficial policy based on narrow sc ope and risky business were soon revealed when the company suffered the biggest financial turmoil of USA’s history which also triggered the late 2000’s recession. The responsibility of this crisis which resulted in the destruction of one of the most established names in the world of international finance lies directly on the management team of Lehman Brothers which consisted of several heavyweights, led by a very impolite and fiery Chairman and CEO, Richard S. Fuld, Jr. Article Summaries Onaran and Scinta (2008) state that the fourth biggest investment bank of the United States surrendered to the subprime mortgage catastrophe it had initially facilitated to develop in the midst of the largest bankruptcy in history. The old and respectable firm, Lehman Brothers Holding Inc, which had even survived the Great Depression, reported a bankruptcy petition in the US Bankruptcy Court. It had to lose 94 percent of its market worth during this tumultuous year. The filing of the b iggest bankruptcy case ever was led by bankruptcy legal representative Harvey Miller. Within hours, the shares of the

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Social Identity Theory Essay Example for Free

Social Identity Theory Essay Summarise two theories of identity and compare their usefulness for explaining the real world issues discussed in chapter 1, Identities and diversity. The study of identity is primarily the study of who we are and who we are not in comparison to other people, what makes individuals and groups of individuals unique from each other is a very controversial issue. This essay will look at two theories that aim to address this issue, namely, the Psychosocial theory and the Social Identity Theory (SIT). Whilst examining these two theories this essay will also look at their relevance to some every day issues. The view of Psychosocial theorists is one that identity is produced simultaneously by both personal and social factors. Psychoanalyst Erik Erikson was the first theorist to view identity this way, for Erikson identity consisted of a conscious sense of individual uniqueness, an unconscious striving for continuity and a solidarity with a groups ideas (Erikson cited in Phoenix, 2007, p.53). He believed that a solid understanding of who we are, how we fit in to and are viewed by society forms a core identity, which in turn will create a sense of continuity. Erikson lived through two world wars during which many people feared for their lives. This heightened sense of mortality led to identity confusion. Hence Erikson believed that identity crisis was prevalent at this time. Identity crisis for Erikson was a certain period of time when some young people could not create a solid Ego Identity (a clear understanding of oneself) and were confused and unable to commit to a certain path, the form that this crisis took would be socially and historically variable. This lack of a solid Ego identity Erikson termed as role diffusion. Erikson believed that identity was an ongoing lifelong process through eight different progressive stages ranging from birth to late adulthood, each stage encapsulated many times of crisis and conflict which he saw as normative crisis and essential to the development of identity. Although he saw the period of adolescence as the most important stage, with the majority of adolescents achieving a solid Ego identity after a socially accepted period of trials, trying out various social roles in order to find their ideal path. It was abnormal to be normal during adolescence (Freud cited in Phoenix, 2007, p.56) Erikson calls this period a Psychosocial Moratorium. During this period of Psychosocial Moratorium Erikson viewed the solidarity of adolescents with groups and their ideas as important to identity, as young people struggle to find a niche in society they can often over identify with various groups. Within these groups the feelings against other groups ( outsiders ) can often become cruel or even violent if there is any threat to their sense of identity. This identity battle between groups is addressed by the Social Identity Theory (SIT) which was developed by Psychologist Henri Tajfel. Unlike the work of Erikson, Tajfel concentrated more on the social than individual process of identity development. He considered the development of individual and group identity as being separate processes. Tajfel was a Jewish holocaust survivor, his experiences with the Nazi regime was the driving force of his studies, he wanted to know what it was that led to prejudice between different groups. Tajfel mainly focused his studies on trying to identify the minimum requirements needed in order to form group identities, which he did by studying the intergroup relations between minimal groups. These minimal groups were a number of individuals with nothing really in common with each other, apart from the fact that they were categorized as being in the same group (ingroup), they also had no reason to oppose any individual or group outside their defined group (outgroup). Tajfel found that the simple fact of being categorized within a group was enough to cause prejudice against another group. It is the subjective feeling of belonging to a group which is important in SIT rather than membership as defined by outsiders or simply sharing some characteristics with other group members (Turner cited in Phoenix, 2007, p.63). The SIT theory suggests that the status of an individuals group identity can directly affect a persons individual identity, and that the need to belong to a high status group is paramount to a sense of high self esteem. Therefore groups are continuously striving to be dominant and superior, in doing so dominant groups will often inflict prejudice and discrimination against inferior groups as a means to increase their members self esteem. likewise individuals of inferior groups will strive to increase their self esteem by attempting to increase their status by means of social mobility ( move to a higher status group). Some groups will often try to affect social change in order to improve their social status by means of social creativity,(redefining their social status in a more positive way) or social competition, ( revolutions and civil wars). Both the Psychosocial and SIT theories of identity are relevant in different ways when considering real life issues, one of which being the embodied identities of people with physical disabilities. Embodiment is a factor in both theories, SIT considers embodiment (of physically impaired people) as a category for discrimination whilst the Psychosocial theory is concerned with the continuity of ones body to function as an issue of identity. People becoming physically impaired later in life will have a heightened sense of identity, this can be explained by both theories. Psychosocial theorists would see this as a break in the continuity which is central to this theory leading to an identity crisis, whilst in the context of SIT the change in social status by being categorised in a minority group would be the explanation. In summarising the theories of Erikson and Tajfel it can be clearly seen that both approached the complexity of identity in very different ways, both drawing from their own life experiences as a focus for their studies. Although they both draw different conclusions each theory has some relevance to the identity of physically impaired people, this reinforces the view that there is no single answer to the question of identity. References Phoenix, A. (2007) Identities and Diversities, in Miell, D. and Thomas, K. (eds) Mapping Psychology, Milton Keynes, The Open University. Part 2 The aim of the study is to research the importance of work for identity. The researchers propose to recruit participants by putting a poster in a job centre inviting unemployed people to volunteer to be interviewed about their employment history. People who express interest will be given a date and time for an interview and asked to sign a consent form. They will be offered a small payment (Â £5) for completing the interview. When they attend the interview, they will be told that the interview will be video-recorded and later transcribed (i.e. the questions and answers written down) for the researchers to analyse. They will be promised confidentiality. The ethics committee does not grant approval, for several reasons. One is that in the proposed study the researchers do not adequately obtain the informed consent of the participants, as required by the British Psychological Society. 1. Explain the problems with the proposed study concerning informed consent. (150 words) Informed consent was not adequately obtained as it was not clearly stated as to why the research was being done nor was it made clear as to how the interview would be structured (use of a video tape, questionnaire, etc) It was not made completely clear as to how the data will be used and for what purpose. There was also no explanation of the fact that after the interview had been transcribed, further consent would be needed before it could be used. 2. Explain three of the other ethical problems raised by the proposed study. (200 words) a. There was no mention of the participants right to withdraw at any time which should be done at the point of first contact. It should also be explained that if they did decide to withdraw during the interview that the payment they received would not be withdrawn. This was not made clear and the statement could easily be read as if there will be no payment unless the interview was completed. b. Participants should not be promised confidentiality as a number of people would probably see the data given in order to analyse it. Instead they should have been promised anonymity whereby not only their name will be removed but any clues to their identity too. If this is not possible then consent would be needed for disclosure. c. It should have been made clear that before signing a consent form participants would be given the choice as to what questions they wish to answer and given the option to refuse to answer any questions they were uncomfortable with. 3. Suggest a possible improvement to the study and explain the ethical problem(s) this would address. (150 words) The participants could have been informed that they can view the data collected at the end of the interview and that they have the opportunity then to withdraw any information they were unhappy or uncomfortable about making public. This would help to uphold the dignity of the participant, in case in hindsight they had revealed something about themselves that they wanted to keep private.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Female Literature Deserves the Same Regognition as Traditional Male Lit

Female Literature Deserves the Same Regognition as Traditional Male Literature Literary critic, Jane Tompkins targets the "male-dominated scholarly tradition that controls both the canon of American literature - and the critical perspective that interprets the canon for society" (502), in her exploration of the canonical exclusion of Kate Chopin's The Awakening, written in 1899, and Charlotte Perkins Gilman's 1892 short story, "The Yellow Wallpaper." Tompkins further notes that "the tradition of Perry Miller, F.O. Matthiessen, Harry Levin, Richard Chase, R.W.B. Lewis, Yvor Winters, and Henry Nash Smith has prevented even committed feminists from recognizing and asserting the value of a powerful and specifically female novelistic tradition" (502-3). Tompkins' criticism of the scholarly tradition not only asserts the existence of a male-dominated literary paradigm and exclusivity but, with this literary 'gate keeping', also questions how tradition becomes imprinted upon us so as to color our judgment. Tradition becomes the constant, the thing we write, read, rebel against and, interestingly, the thing we supplant with a new tradition once we are excluded from the established boys' club. But how does a so staunchly established tradition, which determines the inclusion and exclusion of literary works, come to be? Tompkins posits the existence of a male-centered agenda that masks its biases as "universal standards of aesthetic judgment" (503). These "universal standards" of aesthetics are subsequently biased against domains which have traditionally been declared feminine. Tompkins indeed contends that "twentieth-century critics have taught generations of students to equate popularity with debasement, emotionality with ... ...knowledging and paying homage to the powers that we keep in power, all in the name of tradition. Tradition is a paradox, for it oftentimes seems bigger than us; our own creation becomes a wall, seemingly insurmountable and impenetrable, that indeed crumbles by our own questioning and refutation. Works Cited Baym, N. (1978). Woman's Fiction: A Guide to Novels By and About Women in America 1820 – 1870. Ithaca: Cornell U.P. Bloom, H. (1975). A Map of Misreading. New York: Oxford U.P. Kolodny, A. (1980). A map for rereading: Or, Gender and the Interpretation of Literary Texts. New Literary History: A Journal of Theory and Interpretation 11, 451-67. Tompkins, J. P.(1985) Sentimental power: Uncle Tom's cabin and the politics of literary history. Sensational Designs: The Cultural Work of American Fiction, 1790-1860, New York: Oxford U.P.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Billie Holiday’s Cruel Life

To understand the controversy that Billie presented one must first go to the root or source of such controversy and examine Billie's childhood. Billie was born Eleanora Harris to her father Clarence Holiday and mother Sadie Fagan who were just fifteen and thirteen years old, respectively, at the time (A 91). Born between 1912 and 1915 in Baltimore, the date unsure, Billie grew up without her father, who moved away early on in her life. Billie and her mother used to fight a lot, when her mother was around. Much of the time Billie was left in the care of relatives or friends, many of whom were unloving (E). Billie's relationship with her family was very weak, as Billie throughout her life and career never or rarely got family approval or recognition (W 13). The extent to which Billie did not get along with her family is evident as she was chastised for her grandmother's death at the age of six (E). The turmoil within Billie's family was manifested when Billie commented later on in life that â€Å"As far as I'm Concerned, all the Fagans are dead† (W 14). This made her family very mad and lead to their further abandonment of Billie. Aside from the superficial tension between Billie and her mother, they did their best to remain loyal to one another and provide for each other (W 201). As Billie grew older, life grew harder and reality slowly became more and more real for her. At age 10, Billie was raped, further strengthening Billie's image of reality. As Billie grew older she became carefree and grew to have a strong temper. One musician remembers Billie as â€Å"a child, 11 or 12 years old, shouting the worst words she knew in the street, anxious to be grown up† (W 35). And on the numerous occasions when Billie's mother was out of town, she would be out having fun without any worries. Billie grew accustomed to using men to get money. Billie would pick up guys, pretending to be a hooker, and then she and her friend would jump him and take his money (W 28). â€Å"She became a fast woman. She wanted fast money, fast life† (W 26). Her life did become faster and faster as Billie was brought further down into the truths of the world when Billie became a prostitute. â€Å"[Billie] ran errands for a brothel in Philadelphia and in 1927 moved to New York, where for the next three years she earned a living as a prostitute† (E). These aspects of Billie's life molded her attitude towards life in the future, and her future decisions and goals. These influences became her boundaries, her disposition, and in some cases, her limitations. Educationally, Billie was deprived. Never getting beyond the fifth grade, Billie was the victim of the educational restrictions that were imposed on many of those who dwelt in Black Ghettos (BB 67). As Billie grew older her education became a limitation. â€Å"This woman's talent and her looks, and yet in some ways she really had the mind of a 12-year-old† (BB 67). This lack of education would haunt Billie later in her career, a startling reminder of her childhood, and its definite shortcomings of providing safety, an education, and a moral base. Musically, Billie grew up listening to the blues, although it never really was her type of music. Billie loved listening to Jazz records as a child, early influences including Louis Armstrong. Eventually, Billie moved on to attempt a singing career. â€Å"Inspired by her love of singing, she talked the manager of a club into letting her sing a few tunes with the house band- she made $57 in tips† (E). In this way, Billie was motivated to become a singer, a decision that will prove not only to be beneficial to her, but also to be a risk factor that would threaten her health.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Benjamin Franklin Self Improvement Essay - 944 Words

â€Å"The biggest room in the world is the room for improvement†(Schmidt). Not a single person currently on this earth is perfect, everybody has their flaws. Benjamin Franklin recognized the imperfections in his habits and wanted to eliminate them to the best of his ability. He created this ingenious plan to abolish or at least improve upon these imperfections. He started by making a list of what virtues or characteristics he wanted to gain from his plan and clearly defined them. Franklin them proceeded to create the schedule for which he would diminish the imperfections in his habits. Benjamin’s plan has had multiple effects on self-improvement, some of the most significant being the virtues and characteristics acquired, the learned†¦show more content†¦Order allowed Franklin more free time for activities that he liked to partake in. These virtues were some of the most important and helped him to improve himself, but this does not take away from any of the oth er virtues, for they had their part as well in the self-improvement of Franklin. These virtues clearly had an enormous effect on the self-improvement of Benjamin Franklin. Another major effect of the self-improvement plan from The Autobiography is the persistency and patience that was learned from acquiring the virtues. This quote represents how Franklin felt while trying to overcome his weaknesses with the self-improvement plan, â€Å"A little more persistence, a little more effort, and what seemed hopeless failure may turn to glorious success†(Hubbard). Franklin found the most difficulty in overcoming order, he found that it was difficult in regards to organization. He found organization hard because he did not know or understand where to put things and organize it so that it was orderly. He even said in his own words, â€Å"This article, therefore, cost me so much painful attention...that I was almost ready to give up the attempt†(145), that he was ready to give up. Of course, knowing Franklin and the fact that his plan for self-improvement has become so popular, he didn’t give up in the end. He decided to work even harder than before and was able to conquer the virtue that is order. Another trait he gained from theShow MoreRelatedBenjamin Franklin Essay894 Words   |  4 PagesINTRODUCTION Benjamin Franklin was born in Milk Street, Boston on January 6, 1706. Throughout his existence Franklin exemplified a life of self-improvement. His eagerness to improve himself trickled over into his eagerness to help others improve themselves. Franklin was the youngest son of his father’s 17 children. Coming from such an enormous family, his education ended at the age of ten years old. At the age of twelve Franklin began to work alongside of his brother James. 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